You can find the Debian version on which your Ubuntu version is based in the file:

/etc/debian_version

From 10.04 up to 17.04:


   Ubuntu      |       Debian  
18.04  bionic     buster  / sid   - 10
17.10  artful     stretch / sid   - 9
17.04  zesty      stretch / sid
16.10  yakkety    stretch / sid
16.04  xenial     stretch / sid
15.10  wily       jessie  / sid   - 8
15.04  vivid      jessie  / sid
14.10  utopic     jessie  / sid
14.04  trusty     jessie  / sid
13.10  saucy      wheezy  / sid   - 7
13.04  raring     wheezy  / sid
12.10  quantal    wheezy  / sid
12.04  precise    wheezy  / sid
11.10  oneiric    wheezy  / sid
11.04  natty      squeeze / sid   - 6
10.10  maverick   squeeze / sid
10.04  lucid      squeeze / sid

(src)

Debian Releases Production Releases:

Version

Code name

Release date

End of life date

12

?Bookworm

11

Bullseye

10

Buster

9

Stretch

June 17th 2017

approx. 2020 (full) / approx. 2022 (LTS)

8

Jessie

April 25th 2015

~June 6th 2018 (full) / ~June 6th 2020 (LTS)

7

Wheezy

May 4th 2013

April 26th 2016 (full) / May 2018 (LTS)

6.0

Squeeze

February 6th 2011

May 31st 2014 (full) / February 29th 2016 (LTS)

5.0

Lenny

February 14th 2009

February 6th 2012

4.0

Etch

Apr 8th 2007

February 15th 2010

3.1

Sarge

June 6th 2005

March 31st 2008

3.0

Woody

July 19th 2002

June 30th 2006

2.2

Potato

August 15th 2000

June 30th 2003

2.1

Slink

March 9th 1999

September 30th 2000 (full) / October 30th 2000 (limited)

2.0

Hamm

July 24th 1998

1.3

Bo

July 2nd 1997

1.2

Rex

December 12th 1996

1.1

Buzz

June 17th 1996

0.93R6

October 26 1995

0.93R5

March 1995

0.91

January 1994

Note: the point releases (like 7.1 and 7.2) are detailed in each distribution’s page.

See also Debian History.

Release statistics

Version

Code name

Freeze length

Time from previous release

Time from next release up to EOL

Total lifetime

1.2

Rex

178 days

1.3

Bo

175 days

2.0

Hamm

171 days

414 days

2.1

Slink

125 days

228 days

76 days

601 days

2.2

Potato

212 days

525 days

346 days

1049 days

3.0

Woody

383 days

703 days

389 days

1442 days

3.1

Sarge

34 days

1053 days

357 days

1028 days

4.0

Etch

258 days

671 days

366 days

1044 days

5.0

Lenny

202 days

678 days

365 days

1087 days

6.0

Squeeze

184 days

722 days

391 days

7.0

Wheezy

308 days

818 days

367 days

8.0

Jessie

171 days

721 days

9.0

Stretch

224 days

784 days

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